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  • Diagnosis - Canadian Cancer Society
    are doing Asbestos Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Local priorities Success stories What you can do Donate Recently viewed pages Diagnosis Uterine Uterine cancer Thyroid Thyroid cancer Testicular Testicular cancer Skin non melanoma Non melanoma skin cancer Skin melanoma Melanoma Prostate Prostate cancer Pancreatic Pancreatic cancer Non Hodgkin lymphoma Non Hodgkin lymphoma Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Diagnosis Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary Volunteering requires time energy and dedication It s a big job but it s worth it Read Janet s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team We prevent cancer 27 000 smokers got tips and tools from the Society s quit smoking programs Learn More Diagnosis Diagnosis is the process of finding the underlying cause of a health problem If cancer is suspected the healthcare team will confirm if it is present or not and what type of cancer it is The process usually begins with a person visiting their family doctor with a specific complaint or symptom or because something was detected during a routine check up After taking a medical history and performing a physical examination the doctor will come up with a list of potential causes for the problem usually referred to as a differential diagnosis Tests for example laboratory tests x rays procedures or an appointment with a specialist will help doctors determine the exact diagnosis The diagnosis of cancer almost always requires an examination of a tissue sample from an abnormal area biopsy

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/diagnosis/?region=bc (2014-10-09)
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  • Tests and procedures - Canadian Cancer Society
    Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Local priorities Success stories What you can do Donate Recently viewed pages Tests and procedures Diagnosis Uterine Uterine cancer Thyroid Thyroid cancer Testicular Testicular cancer Skin non melanoma Non melanoma skin cancer Skin melanoma Melanoma Prostate Prostate cancer Pancreatic Pancreatic cancer Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Tests and procedures Diagnosis Tests and procedures Alpha fetoprotein AFP Angiography Axillary lymph node dissection Barium enema Biopsy Blood chemistry tests Blood tests Blood transfusion Bone density scan Bone marrow aspiration biopsy Bone scan Bronchoscopy Cancer antigen 125 CA 125 Cancer antigen 15 3 CA 15 3 Carbohydrate antigen 19 9 CA 19 9 Carcinoembryonic antigen CEA Cell and tissue studies Central venous catheter Clinical breast exam Colonoscopy Complete blood count CBC Computed tomography CT scan Cone biopsy Core needle biopsy Digital rectal examination Ductography Echocardiogram Electrocardiogram Electroencephalogram Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP Endoscopy Fine needle aspiration Gallium scan Glomerular filtration rate GFR study Hearing exam HER2 status testing Hormone receptor testing Human chorionic gonadotropin HCG or b HCG Hysterectomy Imaging Immunizations Intravenous pyelogram Laboratory tests Laryngoscopy Loop electrical excision procedure Lumbar puncture Magnetic resonance imaging MRI Mammography Mediastinoscopy Metaiodobenzylguanidine MIBG scan Multigated acquisition MUGA scan Nuclear medicine imaging Pap test Paracentesis Pelvic examination Pelvic exenteration Peripherally inserted central catheter Physical examination Positron emission tomography PET scan Prostate specific antigen PSA Pulmonary function test Punch biopsy Radical trachelectomy Scintimammography Sentinel lymph node biopsy Shave biopsy Stereotactic core needle biopsy Stool test Subcutaneous port Surgical biopsy Thoracentesis Thoracoscopy Transrectal ultrasound TRUS Tumour markers Tunnelled central venous catheter Ultrasound Upper GI series Urinalysis Whipple procedure Wire localization biopsy X ray Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/tests-and-procedures/?region=bc (2014-10-09)
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  • Staging and grading - Canadian Cancer Society
    a luminary Asian Giving Major gifts How your donations help Funding research Events and Participation Find an event near you Relay For Life Daffodil Ball Daffodil Month Cops for Cancer Golf Fore the Cure Awareness weeks and months Hold your own event Workshops and seminars Volunteering Why volunteer Ways to volunteer Volunteer opportunities Take action What we are doing Asbestos Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Local priorities Success stories What you can do Donate Recently viewed pages Staging and grading Tests and procedures Diagnosis Uterine Uterine cancer Thyroid Thyroid cancer Testicular Testicular cancer Skin non melanoma Non melanoma skin cancer Skin melanoma Melanoma Prostate Prostate cancer Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Staging and grading Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Tumour grading Staging Prognostic factors Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary It makes you feel like you re getting back to normal You just get to be a normal kid at camp Read Simran s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team We prevent cancer 27 000 smokers got tips and tools from the Society s quit smoking programs Learn More Staging and grading Staging is a way of describing or classifying a cancer based on the extent of cancer in the body The stage is often based on the size of the tumour whether the cancer has spread metastasized from where it started to other parts of the body and where it has spread Stages are based on specific factors for each type of cancer Grading is

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/staging-and-grading/?region=bc (2014-10-09)
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  • Treatment - Canadian Cancer Society
    Testicular Testicular cancer Skin non melanoma Non melanoma skin cancer Skin melanoma Melanoma Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Treatment Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary At just 7 years old my daughter is a cancer survivor and my hero Read Kayleigh s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team We fund research 753 scientific papers based on Society funded research were published in peer reviewed journals Learn More Treatment The 3 main cancer treatments are surgery radiation therapy and chemotherapy Other types of treatments such as hormonal therapy biological therapy or stem cell transplant may also be used in certain cases for some types of cancer Cancer treatment is given by cancer specialists oncologists Some specialize in surgery some in radiation therapy and others in chemotherapy drugs These doctors work with the person with cancer to decide on a treatment plan People with cancer are given individual treatment plans based on their type of cancer cancer s characteristics stage of cancer personal situation and wishes Sometimes 2 people with the same cancer may be given very different treatments Treatment goals Cancer treatment may be given for a number of reasons Sometimes the goal of treatment can change over time prevention prophylaxis Treatment is given to prevent the growth of cancer cells or to remove precancerous tissue that could turn into cancer cure Treatment is given to cure the cancer control Treatment is given to control the tumour and stop cancer from growing and spreading It also reduces the risk of the cancer coming back recurring palliation palliative When cure is not possible treatment is given to temporarily shrink tumours reduce symptoms such as bleeding pain or pressure treat problems caused by cancer or its treatment improve a person s comfort and quality of life Treatment plans A cancer treatment plan is based on each person s unique situation Sometimes only one type of treatment is all that is needed This is called the main or primary treatment In other cases one type of treatment by itself may not work as well and a combination of treatments is used to more effectively control and treat the cancer When a combination of treatments is used they may be given together or at different times depending on the type or stage of cancer neoadjuvant Treatment such as chemotherapy or radiation is given before the primary treatment to shrink a tumour so that it is easier to treat with the primary therapy adjuvant Treatment is given after the primary therapy to control the cancer more effectively to destroy any remaining cancer cells or to reduce the risk of the cancer recurring Types of treatment Treatment can be

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/treatment/?region=bc (2014-10-09)
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  • Surgery - Canadian Cancer Society
    Cancer Golf Fore the Cure Awareness weeks and months Hold your own event Workshops and seminars Volunteering Why volunteer Ways to volunteer Volunteer opportunities Take action What we are doing Asbestos Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Local priorities Success stories What you can do Donate Recently viewed pages Surgery Treatment Staging and grading Tests and procedures Diagnosis Uterine Uterine cancer Thyroid Thyroid cancer Testicular Testicular cancer Skin non melanoma Non melanoma skin cancer Skin melanoma Melanoma Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Surgery Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Principles Uses Types Procedure Potential side effects Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary There aren t many positive aspects of metastatic cancer but I hope that by providing empathy and being a caring listener I can be of some help to others Read Marlene s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team Establishing a national caregivers strategy The Canadian Cancer Society is actively lobbying the federal government to establish a national caregivers strategy to ensure there is more financial support for this important group of people Learn More Surgery Also called an operation Surgery is a medical procedure to remove or repair tissue Tissue may be removed to find out if it is cancerous biopsy or to treat cancer It is the oldest form of cancer treatment and is still the main treatment for many types of cancer Surgery is also used to lower the risk of developing certain types of cancer to restore function or appearance to relieve symptoms

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/surgery/?region=bc (2014-10-09)
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  • Chemotherapy and other drug therapies - Canadian Cancer Society
    pages Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Surgery Treatment Staging and grading Tests and procedures Diagnosis Uterine Uterine cancer Thyroid Thyroid cancer Testicular Testicular cancer Skin non melanoma Non melanoma skin cancer Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Chemotherapy Hormonal therapy Biological therapy Targeted therapy Bisphosphonates Supportive drugs Sources of drug information Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary His amazing career and legacy live on today inspiring a new generation of scientists who are discovering new ways to harness the power of medical imaging to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment Read Harold s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team Advocating for cancer patients Our staff and volunteers meet with elected officials from local provincial and national governments to persuade them to make the fight against cancer one of their top priorities Learn More Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Drug therapies work in different ways to destroy cancer cells stop them from spreading or slow down their growth Drugs may also be used to lessen or relieve side effects of cancer or its treatment Chemotherapy sometimes called chemo destroys cancer cells or slows down how fast they grow Some chemotherapy drugs are given on their own More often several chemotherapy drugs are used together to destroy cancer cells Hormonal drug therapy changes the levels of certain hormones in your body to destroy cancer cells or slow down how fast they grow Biological therapy helps make your body s immune system stronger so it can destroy cancer cells and stop cancer from coming back Targeted therapy uses drugs to target specific molecules for examples proteins in cancer cells to stop them from growing and spreading Targeting cancer cells means that these drugs don t damage as many normal cells Supportive drugs prevent manage or relieve side effects that cancer or cancer treatments may cause For example bisphosphonates help strengthen bones and protect them against the effects of some cancers and their treatments Sometimes drug therapy is the only treatment you receive You may need only one type of drug therapy or you may receive a combination of drug therapies For example biological therapy may be given with chemotherapy to help lessen side effects and make the immune system stronger Goals of drug therapy Your doctor will explain the goals of your treatment plan As part of your treatment plan drug therapy may be used in the following ways Drug therapy may cure the cancer by destroying all the cancer cells and reducing the chances that the cancer will come back It can control the cancer by stopping cancer cells from growing and spreading or destroying cancer cells that have spread to

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/chemotherapy-and-other-drug-therapies/?region=bc (2014-10-09)
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  • Radiation therapy - Canadian Cancer Society
    Golf Fore the Cure Awareness weeks and months Hold your own event Workshops and seminars Volunteering Why volunteer Ways to volunteer Volunteer opportunities Take action What we are doing Asbestos Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Local priorities Success stories What you can do Donate Recently viewed pages Radiation therapy Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Surgery Treatment Staging and grading Tests and procedures Diagnosis Uterine Uterine cancer Thyroid Thyroid cancer Testicular Testicular cancer Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Radiation therapy Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy How radiation therapy works External beam radiation therapy Conformal radiation therapy Stereotactic radiation therapy Brachytherapy Systemic radiation therapy After radiation therapy Side effects of radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary Mapping the obesity problem Read more Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team 1 700 people with cancer participated in clinical trials funded by the Society Learn More Radiation therapy In low doses radiation is used for things like x rays to take pictures of the inside of your body Radiation for cancer treatment uses higher doses of radiation to destroy cancer cells Radiation therapy works by damaging the cancer cells over and over again The cancer cells don t have time to repair themselves in between daily treatments so eventually they die Normal cells can repair and replace themselves between these daily sessions of radiation therapy Even though cancer cells and normal cells react differently to radiation it s very hard to destroy cancer cells without damaging some normal cells too

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/radiation-therapy/?region=bc (2014-10-09)
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  • Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Canadian Cancer Society
    Events and Participation Find an event near you Relay For Life Daffodil Ball Daffodil Month Cops for Cancer Golf Fore the Cure Awareness weeks and months Hold your own event Workshops and seminars Volunteering Why volunteer Ways to volunteer Volunteer opportunities Take action What we are doing Asbestos Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Local priorities Success stories What you can do Donate Recently viewed pages Photodynamic therapy Radiation therapy Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Surgery Treatment Staging and grading Tests and procedures Diagnosis Uterine Uterine cancer Thyroid Thyroid cancer Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Photodynamic therapy Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Principles Uses Types Procedure Potential side effects Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary I have always been active and led a healthy lifestyle but for a while had been feeling sluggish not quite myself Read Judy s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team 1 700 people with cancer participated in clinical trials funded by the Society Learn More Photodynamic Therapy PDT Also called photoradiation therapy phototherapy photochemotherapy Photodynamic therapy PDT destroys cancer cells by using a drug called a photosensitizer which makes the cells sensitive to laser light PDT is a fairly new procedure and was approved for use in Canada in the 1990s It is used to treat tumours in the lining of some organs to relieve blockages caused by tumours in the esophagus or lungs PDT is usually done in stages the photosensitizer is given and is absorbed by all body cells but

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/photodynamic-therapy/?region=bc (2014-10-09)
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