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  • Clinical trials - Canadian Cancer Society
    are research studies that test new ways to prevent detect treat or manage cancer or other diseases Clinical trials provide information about the safety and effectiveness of new approaches to see if they should become widely available Most of the standard cancer treatments used today were first shown to be effective through clinical trials Participation in a clinical trial may be an option for a person with cancer or someone at risk for developing cancer People decide for themselves whether or not they want to participate in a clinical trial The importance of clinical trials Clinical trials add to the progress that is being made against cancer They answer important scientific questions and lead to future research Many people with cancer are now living longer because of progress made through clinical trials Findings from past clinical trials have led to new and more effective drugs for specific types of cancer drugs with fewer side effects less invasive methods of surgery Types and phases There are many different types of clinical trials including trials for prevention screening and early detection diagnosis treatment and supportive care Clinical trials for new treatments involve several steps called phases Each phase of a clinical trial answers a different question about the disease and its treatment Components of a clinical trial Clinical trials follow very strict procedures and ethical standards that protect the participants health safety and privacy Each trial has several components including its own protocol action plan and criteria for eligibility People considering a clinical trial should be given enough information about the study its components to make an informed and educated decision about taking part This process is called informed consent Benefits and risks Clinical trials are carefully designed to have as few risks and as many benefits as possible for everyone who takes part But each clinical trial offers its own possible benefits and risks It is important to discuss these with your doctor Protection of participants Government and international regulations and policies are in place to make sure that research involving people is done according to strict scientific and ethical guidelines Clinical trial protocols are reviewed by a panel of at least 5 people at the hospital clinic or university before the trial begins Many clinical trials also require Health Canada s approval The panel called an Institutional Review Board IRB includes doctors scientists and members of the general public IRBs help to protect the people who take part in a clinical trial They also ensure that the trial is well designed legal and ethical and that it does not involve unnecessary risks Location A clinical trial usually takes place in the same location where standard cancer treatment is given cancer centres hospitals clinics or doctors offices While some trials enrol people at 1 or 2 locations a large clinical trial may involve thousands of people at hundreds of locations across the country or around the world If a person lives in a small town or rural area they may need

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/clinical-trials/?region=nb (2014-10-09)
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  • Managing symptoms and side effects - Canadian Cancer Society
    and Participation Find an event near you Relay For Life Daffodil Ball Daffodil Month Curl for Cancer East Indian charity dinner and auction Golf Fore the Cure Awareness weeks and months Hold your own event Volunteering Why volunteer Ways to volunteer Volunteer opportunities Take action What we are doing Asbestos Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Success stories What you can do Issues you can act on Donate Recently viewed pages Managing side effects Clinical trials Stem cell transplant Photodynamic therapy Radiation therapy Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Surgery Treatment Staging and grading Tests and procedures Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Managing side effects Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Anemia Ascites Bone marrow suppression Bowel obstruction Constipation Diarrhea Difficulty swallowing Disseminated intravascular coagulation Dry mouth Dumping syndrome Fatigue Fertility problems Hair loss Hiccups Hypercalcemia Increased intracranial pressure ICP Infection Loss of appetite Low platelet count Low white blood cell count Lymphedema Nausea and vomiting Osteoporosis Osteoradionecrosis Pleural effusion Septic shock Sexual problems for men Sexual problems for women Skin problems Sleep problems Sore mouth and throat Spinal cord compression Superior vena cava syndrome Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone Taste changes Treatment induced menopause Trismus Tube feeding and parenteral nutrition Tumour lysis syndrome Urinary incontinence Weight gain Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary Cancer is stressful enough without needing to worry about how we are going to pay our monthly bills Read Maynard s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team How can you stop cancer before it starts

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/managing-side-effects/?region=nb (2014-10-09)
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  • Pain - Canadian Cancer Society
    to severe Chronic pain can start as acute pain and then stay beyond the normal expected healing time It is also called persistent pain Breakthrough pain occurs when pain breaks through the regular dose of pain medicine It can be moderate to severe When breakthrough pain is related to activity it is called incident pain When it occurs as the effects of pain medicine wear off it is called end of dose pain Pain can also be described based on the part of the body it affects Nerve pain is caused by pressure on the nerves or spinal cord or by damage to nerves It may be described as burning or tingling You may have nerve pain after surgery radiation therapy or chemotherapy Bone pain develops when cancer spreads to the bone It may occur in one or more areas of bone Bone pain is often aching dull or throbbing Soft tissue pain is caused by damage to an organ or muscle It is usually described as sharp aching or throbbing Visceral pain is pain that starts in internal organs such as the intestine or bowel It is often difficult to describe or find the source of the pain It is described as colicky or vague and is often linked with other symptoms such as nausea and sweating Phantom pain is pain or changes in sensation in a body part that has been removed For example some people feel pain in an arm or leg that has been amputated or in the breast area after a mastectomy Referred pain is when one part of the body causes pain in another part For example a swollen liver can press on nerves and cause pain in the right shoulder Back to top Causes of pain Pain may be caused by the cancer itself medical tests or procedures and cancer treatments or their side effects Tumours Tumours can cause pain as they grow They can damage parts of the body or press on organs nerves or bones For example a tumour may spread to the spine and cause spinal cord compression Tumours can also cause pain if they block organs tubes or blood vessels Medical tests or procedures Medical tests or procedures sometimes cause pain These tests or procedures can include injections placing an intravenous line a lumbar puncture a bone marrow aspiration or surgery Whenever they do a test or procedure the healthcare team takes measures to prevent pain as much as possible Cancer treatments Cancer treatments may cause pain For example surgery to remove a tumour can damage tissue or nerves and some people may develop an infection after surgery Some chemotherapy drugs may cause vomiting diarrhea constipation or mouth sores which can be painful Radiation therapy can also cause discomfort or pain depending on the area treated Back to top Talking about pain You can help make sure your pain is relieved or controlled by talking to your healthcare team about it Be honest and let them know if you

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/pain/?region=nb (2014-10-09)
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  • Complementary and alternative therapies - Canadian Cancer Society
    therapies Surgery Treatment Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Complementary therapies Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Deciding about complementary alternative therapies Acupuncture Aromatherapy Art therapy Ayurvedic medicine Chiropractic care Energy therapies First Nations healing Massage Medical marijuana use Mind body medicine Naturopathic medicine Traditional Chinese medicine Rehabilitation Cancer during pregnancy Glossary My family doctor and my surgeon both have told me I would have had full blown colon cancer within a year Read Susan s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team Trusted online community of support Cancerconnection ca provides a trusted online community for cancer patients their family and friends Learn More Complementary and alternative therapies Also called complementary and alternative medicine CAM Complementary and alternative therapies include a wide range of healing approaches and therapies More and more Canadians want to know about complementary and alternative therapies and wonder whether using them would help their cancer experience The decision to use a complementary or alternative therapy is a personal one but if you are thinking about trying such a therapy be sure to make an informed choice Making an informed choice means understanding the difference between conventional complementary and alternative therapies finding out as much as you can about the complementary or alternative therapy you are considering before deciding about using it talking to your healthcare team about the complementary or alternative therapy and how it may interact or interfere with the care you are receiving Using some complementary or alternative products or therapies during or shortly after cancer treatment may be not advised Any decisions about treatment should be discussed with the healthcare team Conventional therapies Conventional mainstream therapies are medical or surgical treatments that are currently accepted and widely used in the Canadian healthcare system Healthcare professionals use these treatments because the best available scientific research has shown them to be safe and effective they are evidence based They are used to treat cancer and relieve symptoms or side effects of treatment Conventional treatment for cancer which usually consists of surgery radiation therapy chemotherapy or hormonal therapy aims to attack or remove the cancer These methods have been scientifically tested and are constantly being improved in well designed clinical trials that explore whether the medicine or treatment is safe and whether it works for a particular disease or medical condition Complementary and alternative therapies The words complementary and alternative are sometimes used interchangeably but they are actually two different approaches Whether a therapy is considered to be complementary or alternative depends on why and how it is used Many complementary and alternative therapies have not been scientifically tested or proven to be effective in treating specific conditions or diseases Some are in the early

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/complementary-therapies/?region=nb (2014-10-09)
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  • Rehabilitation - Canadian Cancer Society
    Fore the Cure Awareness weeks and months Hold your own event Volunteering Why volunteer Ways to volunteer Volunteer opportunities Take action What we are doing Asbestos Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Success stories What you can do Issues you can act on Donate Recently viewed pages Rehabilitation Complementary therapies Pain Managing side effects Clinical trials Stem cell transplant Photodynamic therapy Radiation therapy Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Surgery Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Diagnosis and treatment Rehabilitation Diagnosis Tests and procedures Staging and grading Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy and other drug therapies Radiation therapy Photodynamic therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trials Managing side effects Pain Complementary therapies Rehabilitation Physical therapy Cognitive rehabilitation Living with an ostomy Living with a tracheostomy Prostheses Occupational therapy Speech therapy Swallowing problems Vocational counselling Cancer during pregnancy Glossary Every day I see cancer patients and their stories motivate me to continue searching for cancer solutions Read Alexandra s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team Clinical trial discovery improves quality of life A clinical trial led by the Society s NCIC Clinical Trials group found that men with prostate cancer who are treated with intermittent courses of hormone therapy live as long as those receiving continuous therapy Learn More Rehabilitation Rehabilitation and adjusting to life with cancer is a part of cancer care and treatment Rehabilitation is a process that assists a person with cancer to regain their ability to function at the highest level possible given any limits created by the disease or its treatment It can begin as soon as a person is first diagnosed and a treatment plan is made or started after treatment is finished

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/rehabilitation/?region=nb (2014-10-09)
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  • Cancer During Pregnancy - Canadian Cancer Society
    not be harmful to the fetus This depends on the age of the fetus the number of x rays used the amount of radiation exposure and whether or not the fetus is directly exposed to radiation Whenever possible a lead shield is used to cover the mother s abdomen and offers extra protection Diagnostic tests such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI and ultrasound are usually considered safe during pregnancy because they do not use radiation Physical examination and many biopsies are also safe and important in arriving at a cancer diagnosis Sometimes pregnancy can uncover cancer that has gone undetected For example a Pap test is often done as part of a woman s routine care during pregnancy and can detect cervical cancer Routine ultrasounds done during pregnancy may detect ovarian cancer Cancer treatment during pregnancy Treating cancer during pregnancy is very complex The best treatment for the mother and the possible risks or harm to the fetus are considered when looking at treatment options The type of treatment and when it may be given depends on many factors the location of the cancer the type of cancer the size of the tumour or stage of the cancer the stage of the pregnancy how old the fetus is the wishes of the mother and her partner Treatment is tailored to each woman Cancer treatments used during pregnancy may include surgery chemotherapy and sometimes radiation therapy but these are only used after careful consideration and planning to ensure the mother and baby s safety Some cancer treatments can harm a fetus especially during the first three months of pregnancy called the first trimester Sometimes cancer treatment may be delayed until later in the pregnancy during the second or third trimester When cancer is diagnosed later in a pregnancy sometimes it may be possible to wait to start treatment until after the baby is born The doctor may also consider bringing on labour early For some very early stage cancers such as very early stage cervical cancer it may be safe to continue the pregnancy to term and delay treatment until after the baby is born In some situations the woman her partner and the doctor need to discuss whether or not to continue with the pregnancy Not delaying treatment may be the safest option for some women with more advanced or aggressive cancers found early in a pregnancy Surgery Most biopsies can safely be done during pregnancy using a local anesthetic Generally surgery poses the least risk to the fetus and may be considered the safest cancer treatment option for some cancers especially after the first trimester Improvements in surgery and anesthetics and careful monitoring of the mother and baby make it possible to keep risks to a minimum In some cases more extensive surgery may be done to avoid having to use chemotherapy or radiation therapy Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the use of anti cancer drugs to treat cancer It is a systemic therapy that travels throughout the body and destroys

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/cancer-during-pregnancy/?region=nb (2014-10-09)
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  • Recently diagnosed - Canadian Cancer Society
    physical body It can also affect emotions and relationships Your emotions can be very strong conflicting or disturbing They may come and go quickly and they may change often For many people life is not the same after a cancer diagnosis People respond to a diagnosis in different ways You may have many questions when you first find out that you have cancer You may feel shocked overwhelmed devastated numb afraid or angry or you may not believe it A cancer diagnosis can raise fears You may worry about death changes to your body painful treatments or feeling sick You may also worry about how your friends and family will react and how to cope with day to day tasks work or finances Some people feel alone even if friends and family are with them Others feel like they re watching things happen to someone else Some people find it hard to understand what the doctor is telling them and they need to be told the same information many times All of these responses are normal It s also normal for similar feelings and fears to come up a number of times throughout your cancer journey Why is this happening It s normal to wonder why you or someone you care for has cancer No one knows why Cancer is a complex disease and it is often impossible to know why things happen the way they do You may struggle with this throughout your cancer journey It might help to remember that knowing why will not change the course of the illness And continuing to wonder may get in the way of your ability to cope Your valuable energy could be better used to help you and your family deal with the disease Try to focus on the present and how to best deal with the situation ahead If you re having trouble with this it may help to talk to a counsellor or someone on your healthcare team Will there be pain Almost everyone worries that cancer or cancer treatment will be painful While some people do experience pain they may have pain only once in a while Some people don t have any pain at all There are many ways to control and prevent pain so living with cancer does not have to mean living with pain If you are worried about pain or if you are in pain tell someone on your healthcare team They are there to help you Feeling anxious or sad can sometimes make you more sensitive to pain or make pain seem worse Learning to cope with these emotions may help lessen your pain and improve your mood Finding ways to manage pain may make it easier to cope with your emotions Will I die When first diagnosed many people with cancer and their families think about the possibility of dying of cancer This is a normal reaction These kinds of thoughts can be overwhelming especially at first Over time as the reality

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-journey/recently-diagnosed/?region=nb (2014-10-09)
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  • Talking about cancer - Canadian Cancer Society
    involved Support us Make a personal donation Become a corporate supporter Leave a legacy Create a wedding fund Canadian Cancer Society New Brunswick annual draw How your donations help Funding research Events and Participation Find an event near you Relay For Life Daffodil Ball Daffodil Month Curl for Cancer East Indian charity dinner and auction Golf Fore the Cure Awareness weeks and months Hold your own event Volunteering Why volunteer Ways to volunteer Volunteer opportunities Take action What we are doing Asbestos Drug shortages Indoor tanning Tobacco control Success stories What you can do Issues you can act on Donate Recently viewed pages Talking about cancer Recently diagnosed Cancer during pregnancy Rehabilitation Complementary therapies Pain Managing side effects Clinical trials Stem cell transplant Photodynamic therapy Select the text below and copy the link A A A You are here Cancer information Cancer journey Talking about cancer Recently diagnosed Talking about cancer Telling family members and friends Telling children Telling people at work How people may react Sharing your feelings about cancer If you don t want to talk Your healthcare team Living with cancer Life after cancer Advanced cancer Helping someone with cancer If your child has cancer If you re a caregiver Glossary My family doctor and my surgeon both have told me I would have had full blown colon cancer within a year Read Susan s story Links to help you Our research How we can help Relay For Life Resource Publications Questions to ask your healthcare team Trusted online community of support Cancerconnection ca provides a trusted online community for cancer patients their family and friends Learn More Talking about cancer Talking to other people about cancer can be one of the most difficult parts of coping with a cancer diagnosis Telling different people the same news

    Original URL path: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-journey/talking-about-cancer/?region=nb (2014-10-09)
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