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    9 M within 19 pc Motion of stars at small r High v r and increase in eg central regions of M31 velocity curve of M31 Need high resolution observations Why Cool picture HST STIS image of the nucleus of M84 Important What has been detected thus far are usually considered M assive D ark O bjects MDOs Are they actually black holes Not conclusive difficult to prove outright but

    Original URL path: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/~courteau/Phys216/smbh.html (2016-02-13)
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    uniquely Use X ray observations of hot gas T 10 7 K Assume ideal gas and hydrostatic equilibrium Powerful technique DM in halos of galaxies has M dark 10 M vis R h 100 kpc Clusters of Galaxies R size of the cluster 10 Mpc indicates that dynamical mass exceeds visible mass by 10 times on all scales binaries small groups rich clusters confirmed by X ray data of gas emission Note m gas m visible Typical rich cluster has 2 7 of its mass in galaxies 10 30 in gas 60 85 in DM Because gas is roughly isothermal beyond central regions suggest DM r 2 which is faster than gas itself Gas would appear to be more extended than DM M L ratio constant from 100 kpc scale galaxies to 1 Mpc for the clusters Suggest DM in cluster is the same as galaxies Lensing On Cluster Scales Arcs Distant galaxies behind cluster may be distored into arclets by cluster potential if M 10 5 M Estimates of the dark mass consistent with dynamical measures on cluster scales HST image of A2218 On Local Scale Microlensing MACHOs Method sensitive to lens masses 10 8 10 2 M Intensity variations in stars in LMC SMC and Galactic Bulge due to halo stars Probability P star being lensed 10 6 look at millions of stars simultaneously Brightening events last 1 100 days Signatures time symmetric and achromatic Results about 50 lensing events have been seen Timescale and frequency of LMC events suggest 0 5 M and halo mass fraction of 20 The search continues and it should be possible eventually to detect planets by their lensing effects Large Scale Structure Streaming Motions CfA Redshift Survey Las Campanas Redshift Survey Motions of Local Group and surrounding clusters 3D structure of LG and surrounding clusters 3D map of LG and surrounding clusters Peculiar velocities probe ALL the mass Compare galaxy density and mass density to get on very large scales 0 3 0 4 Constraints from BBN and MWB BBN big bang nucleosynthesis Standard picture explains primordial abundances X 4 He 0 24 X 2 D X 3 He 10 5 X 7 Li 10 10 only if 0 010 h 2 b 0 015 h 2 MWB microwave background T in Cosmic Microwave Background COBE give us information about at time of emission Anisotropies would be too large if matter were baryonic See Figure 28 5 and Tables 27 1 and 28 1 in text M L of galaxies as a function of scale Effective as a Function Scale From http cfpa berkeley edu group directdet pubs sadoulet lecture nov95 dmtoc html Evidence for Dark Matter in the Universe From http cfpa berkeley edu group directdet pubs sadoulet lecture nov95 dmtoc html Baryonic density fluctuations will not produce galaxies need a heavy paricle that is not affected by radiation pressure in order to eventually form galaxies Looking for the Invisible Searches for Dark Matter From http cfpa berkeley edu group directdet

    Original URL path: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/~courteau/Phys216/dm2.html (2016-02-13)
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    yes permanent record few 1 10 Photomultiplier 60 yes UV IR 900 11 000 no digital data on magnetic tape 1000 CCD charged coupled device 80 yes X rays to far IR 150 000 yes small field digital data on magnetic tape few 10 000 The Eye Light is focussed by the lens onto retina which consists of photosensitive cells Drawbacks limited wavelength range non linear response to light perceived brightness is approximately proportional to log flux cannot accumulate or store light The Photographic Plate emulsion gelatin filled with imbedded silver compounds which produce tiny grains of silver when activated by light when treated with a chemical solution developer more silver accumulates around the initial grains areas on emulsion exposed to light are blackened negative image Advantages wider wavelength range UV to near IR fogged by X rays accumulates more light with longer exposure permanent record of image large area wide field of view But not too sensitive QE 2 3 98 of light wasted Also non linear reciprocity failure The Photomultiplier Tube photon strikes photoemissive metal cathode and knocks an electron free from surface this is called the photoelectric effect electron attracted to positively charged dynode hits and dislodges 3 4 electrons each new electron travels to next dynode in chain process repeats in a cascade a pulse of 10 6 10 7 electrons collected by anode Features sensitive QE 60 linear wide spectral response UV IR data recorded digitally cannot create an image The CCD C harge C oupled D evice a chip of photosensitive silicon semiconductor A CCD chip photon absorbed by pixel creates an electric charge trapped within charge of photons linear response to light charges in pixels read out along rows charge in each pixel passed along to next one in line until it reaches

    Original URL path: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/~courteau/Phys216/detectors.html (2016-02-13)
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  • QUARG - Stéphane Courteau - Current & Past Students
    Melanie Hall M Sc 2010 now Program Manager at Canada Science and Technology Museum An Investigation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data and Multi Band Scaling Relations of Spiral Galaxies Leslie Prochaska Chamberlain UNC Ph D 2009 now Instructor Astronomer at Saint Paul s School NH The Stellar Populations of S0 Galaxies co advised by Prof Jim Rose at UNC Michael McDonald Queen s M Sc 2007 now Assistant Professor at MIT The Surface Brightness Distribution of Virgo Cluster Galaxies Kelly Foyle Queen s M Sc 2007 now Outreach Scientist at the Perimeter Institute Numerical Simulations of Galaxy Density Profiles co advised by Prof Robert Thacker at SMU Aaron Dutton UBC M Sc 2005 now Research Associate at MPIA Mass Modeling of Disk Galaxies Degeneracies Constraints and Adiabatic Contraction Lauren MacArthur UBC M Sc 2002 Ph D 2005 now LSST Research Associate at Princeton Stellar Populations of Bulges and Disks in Spiral Galaxies 2006 Plaskett Medal for Best Canadian Ph D Thesis in Astronomy Current Undergraduate Students Christine Hall Honours 2016 The Star Formation Rates in Spiral Galaxies Ella Koonar Honours 2016 The M L Ratios of Late Type Galaxies Former Undergraduate Students Mie Beers USRA 2015 now at Groningen Univ Python Programming for Astronomical Applications Dana Simard Honours 2014 now at the Univ of Toronto The Mass Profile of the Andromeda Galaxy Nathasha Urbancic Honours 2014 at the Univ of Toronto The Velocity Fields of VIVA Galaxies co advised by Prof Kristine Spekkens Yutong Shan Honours 2013 now at Harvard University The Stellar Masses of Cluster Galaxies Shane Hills Honours 2013 now at Stanford University The Multiple Populations of Galactic Globular Clusters Clare Higgs Honours 2012 now at Univ of Victoria NRC Herzberg M L Ratios in Spiral Galaxies Chris Barber Honours 2011 now at Leiden University The Stellar

    Original URL path: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/people/Stephane_Courteau/students.php?pf=yes&pf=yes&pf=yes (2016-02-13)
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  • QUARG - Stéphane Courteau - Publications
    of Virgo Cluster Galaxies II Stellar Populations MNRAS 416 1996 Courteau S Widrow L M McDonald M et al 2011 The Luminosity Profile and Structural Parameters of the Andromeda Galaxy M31 ApJ 739 20 McDonald M Courteau S Tully R B Roediger J 2011 A Survey of 286 Virgo Cluster Galaxies at Optical griz and Near IR H band Surface Brightness Profiles and Bulge Disk Decompositions MNRAS 414 2055 Prochaska Chamberlain L Courteau S McDonald M Rose J 2011 The Stellar Population Trends in S0 Galaxies MNRAS 412 423 MacArthur L A Gonzalez J J and Courteau S 2009 Stellar Population and Kinematic Profiles in Spiral Bulges and Discs Population Synthesis of Integrated Spectra MNRAS 395 28 McDonald M Courteau S and Tully R B 2009 The Near IR Luminosity Function and Bimodal Surface Brightness Distributions of Virgo Cluster Galaxies MNRAS 394 2022 Woo J Courteau S and Dekel A 2008 Scaling Relations and the Fundamental Plane of the Local Group Dwarf Galaxies MNRAS 390 1453 Foyle K Courteau S and Thacker R J 2008 An N body SPH study of isolated galaxy mass density profiles MNRAS 386 1821 Courteau S McDonald M Widrow L M and Holtzman J 2007 The Bulge Halo Connection in Galaxies A Physical Interpretation of the Vcirc sigma0 Relation ApJ 655 L21 Courteau S Dutton A A van den Bosch F MacArthur L A Dekel A McIntosh D H and Dale D A 2007 Scaling Relations of Spiral Galaxies ApJ 671 203 Dutton A A van den Bosch F Dekel A and Courteau S 2007 A Revised Model for the Formation of Disk Galaxies Low Spin and Dark Halo Expansion ApJ 654 27 Dutton A A Courteau S de Jong R and Carignan C 2005 Mass Modeling of Disk Galaxies Degeneracies Constraints and Adiabatic Contraction

    Original URL path: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/people/Stephane_Courteau/publications.php?pf=yes&pf=yes&pf=yes (2016-02-13)
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  • QUARG - Stéphane Courteau - Gallery
    The Role of Bars in Galaxy Evolution Granada Spain May 2013 Dekel 60 Cosmological Streaming Inflows and Outflows Jerusalem Israel December 2011 IAU Symposium 277 Tracing the Ancestry of Galaxies Ouagadougou Burkina Faso December 2010 Student Training at Gemini and CFHT Hawaii Big Island April 2010 Chile Cerro Pachón July 2010 Unveiling the Mass Extracting and Interpreting Galaxy Masses A Celebration of Vera Rubin s Career Kingston Canada 15 19

    Original URL path: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/people/Stephane_Courteau/gallery.php?pf=yes&pf=yes&pf=yes (2016-02-13)
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  • QUARG - Stéphane Courteau - Photos
    Students Selected Publications Gallery Personal Links Home General Information Meet the people Seminars Journals Club Queen s Observatory Astro Links Back to Department Back to QUARG People Stéphane Courteau Photos Various Photos or Articles From e AFFECT Issue 7 June 2015 The Usual Suspects aka The Italian Job With Padova colleagues left to right Enrico Maria Corsini Francesco Bertola Elena Dalla Bontà Stéphane Courteau Alessandro Pizzella Padova 2009 2007 Department

    Original URL path: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/people/Stephane_Courteau/personal.php?pf=yes&pf=yes&pf=yes (2016-02-13)
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  • QUARG - Stéphane Courteau - Links
    Home General Information Meet the people Seminars Journals Club Queen s Observatory Astro Links Back to Department Back to QUARG People Stéphane Courteau Links Astronomy PIcture of the Day NED NASA ADS Astro ph ApJ Web Peer Review Mauna Kea Weather Center Target Visibility Atlas for Structural Studies of Spiral Galaxies A Multi Wavelength Atlas for Structural and Stellar Population Studies of Virgo Galaxies Age Metallicity and Abundance Pattern Compilation

    Original URL path: http://www.astro.queensu.ca/people/Stephane_Courteau/links.php?pf=yes&pf=yes&pf=yes (2016-02-13)
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